Link - article by M. Christian and Avi Abrams

Slightly Mad Concepts of Early Aviation

As the old saying goes: "If at first you don't succeed, try try again." But there's also the saying: "The line between genius and insanity is a fine one." In aeronautics, the success of early pioneers like Clement Ader, Alexander Feodorovich Mozhaiski, Gustave Whitehead, and -- of course -- those bicycle mechanics from Ohio seems to have been a combination of both trying repeatedly and being a bit nuts.

Top Left: Steam airship by Frederick Marriott - Avitor Hermes, Jr. 1869. Right: a bird-like machine by Alexandre Goupil. Bottom Left: Whitehead's Albatross-type Aeroplane, 1905 - Images via

Those who kind of, sort of, just barely got themselves into the air... sometimes not at all

We remember Ader, Mozhaiski, Whitehead, and the Wright Brothers because they did what they sought out to do, with varying degrees of victory: get themselves into the air. Alas, there is a wide world of people who kind of, sort of, just barely did the same, sometimes not at all. But certainly not for a lack of trying.

Photograph of Voisin flight, similar to the Wright Brothers historic flight

What actually counts as flying is a matter of debate. The Wrights took their bows for the first heavier-than-air controlled flight, but there were a lot of other inventors who flew without any control. For instance:

In 1848, John Stringfellow flew a short distance in a steam-powered craft -- wowing the crowds at London's Crystal Palace:

Also shown - Stringfellow and Henson's airliner, images via 1, 2

Want to fly steam-powered, propeller-driven bat-wing airplanes? Some of them were as big as a moderate-size airliner...

(images via)

Jean-Marie Le Bris is credited as flying higher than where he lifted off by using the very terrestrial power source of a horse to pull his elegant glider into the air. This was in 1856.

Le Bris : The Albatross, 1868 - images via and P. Dennez, Le Bourget, 1999

(photo by Thierry Le Roy)

I'd like to see this thing fly again

The afore-mentioned Clement Ader made his way into the record by taking his Avion III more than 30 feet in 1897 -- but that he did is a matter of some debate. Here is his steam-powered, propeller-driven bat-wing airplane, the Eole:

(image credit: flyingmachines)

(detailed model by Gabriele Macri)

Both William Paul Butusov and Gustave Whitehead worked to perfect the "Albatross Soaring-Machine" concept - delicate, dreamlike devices...

Left: Gustave Whitehead's 1901 model; Right: William Paul Butusov machine, images via

You may be tempted to dismiss these efforts as "The Wrong Stuff", or "The Flying Follies", but they all served to progress aviation further toward a powered flight, and they are, after all, gloriously unique:

Top Left: Victorian Flying Machine Concept; Top Right: Ca.60 "Transaero" in 1921; Bottom Left: Thomas Moy's Aerial Steamer, 1874; Bottom Right: Sir Hiram Maxim's flying machine. (Images via Gary Bradshaw and National Air and Space Museum)

Horatio Phillips designed this fantastic structure with 20 wings in 1904:

(image credit: National Air and Space Museum)

Alphonse Penaud envisioned in 1871 a monoplane (closest to the modern forms) with retractable landing gear and a glass-enclosed cockpit. It was never built.

Top: Louis Breguet's Giant Gyroplane; Bottom: Paul Corny machine (both from 1907) - Images via

Gianni Caproni built the "Ca.60 Transaero" in 1921. "The fuselage was a giant boat, it had eight wings (with an area of 9,000 feet), eight engines, and the whole looked like something cooked up at Disneyland... It weighed in at 55,000 pounds. It flew once, from Lake Maggiore." (source)

"After reaching an altitude of 60 feet the flying houseboat took a nosedive and broke up when it hit the water."

"It is a Caproni CA60 Noviplano (the 6 wing flying houseboat. 8 engines with a total of 3,000 hp and 750 sq.m of wing area, capable of holding 100 passengers. Engineer Gianni Caproni was a genius and a true aviation pioneer. He had other 138 creations and was granted over 100 patents" (source)

Top left: Clement Ader’s Avion (LEn’) 1897. Top right: Hiram Maxim’s Giant. Bottom: Felix du Temple Aerial Machine, 1857. Images via

Samuel Pierpont Langley not only perfected elegant flying machine designs, but even built full-size Aerodromes!. On the bottom right is shown "An Aerodrome Mounted OnThe Launching Apparatus Atop A House-Boat, Potomac River - 1903" -

(image credit: flyingmachines)

Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) - one of the most famous pioneers of aviation - built gliders and biplanes, and crashed to his death when one of the wings broke in flight. His Flying Machine (see patent here) looks so beautiful, with proud lines.... He used to say: "To invent an airplane is nothing. To build one is something. But to fly is everything.".

(images via)

Flying on a kite and a prayer

But then there’s one special person who not only tried and tried again but who also skated very near that edge separating brilliant and nuts: the man who flew without power, without much control, and heavier than air.

(images credit: cody-kites)

Ladies and gentlemen, and children of all ages, I give you the flamboyant, the amazing, the possibly crazy Samuel Franklin Cody!

(images credit: cody-kites)

What Cody flew isn’t all that new, but his showmanship and dedication to his own unique way of defying gravity certainly is. The Chinese, after all, had been putting men into the skies with kites for a long time (just read Sun Tzu's The Art of War), but Cody was a human-kite flying zealot.

Cody -- who took his moniker from that other great showman Buffalo Bill Cody -- went from a music hall and wild west show star to the sky when he became fascinated by the idea of using human-carrying kites in all kinds of unique and imaginative ways.

Cody's kite in the 1893s and 75 later, flown on Scheveningen beach (kites built by Nick Morse)

Determined not to just talk a good game, Cody used his natural flamboyance to drive the point home. Around the turn of the century, he crossed the English channel in a kite, though it was towed by a boat the whole way. In 1906 Cody was tasked by the British Army to develop his kites for military uses and soon was using his designs to set world records such as getting a kite to an incredible 1,600 feet. So impressed were the Brits with Cody’s kites, they used them successfully during the first world war to spy on the Germans -- until airplanes became more reliable and Cody’s kites were shelved.

Not to be undone, Cody mixed power and, leaving the ground, and his tow-rope, behind. In 1908 he created his imaginatively named British Army Aeroplane No. 1 and successfully flew it an impressive 1,390 feet, which, according to some, was the first heavier than air flight in Britain.

I see Imperial TIE Fighter somewhere in the lines of these kites

An unknown Cody kite design, spotted by researchers here:

Cody went on to become a real legend in the early days of flight (watch a video about him here), winning the Michelin Cup in 1910 and a military flying contest one year later. In a perfect capper to his larger-than-life career with kites and then planes, Cody met his end at the controls of one of his machines (a unique seaplane) in 1913.

Ornithopters (that could make birds fall from the sky with envy)

George R. White (see patent) and Canadian inventor Doug Froebe kept building these feathered things well into the 1930s:

And we finish with bizarre and truly strange "Quadrotor" concepts - somewhere between a plane and a helicopter, which deserves to be investifgated further - more info is appreciated.

"Oehmichen No.2" and "De Bothezat" four-rotor machine, 1922

We will continue feature the history of flight: the magnificent stories of early fliers who never gave up, and who used their crazy brilliance to get them higher than anyone had been before.

Also Read:
Monstrous Aviation, Airship Dreams,
History of the VTOL Airplanes, Dreams of Solo Flight, and more.


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Anonymous Anonymous said...

The Wright brothers do not appear among these pictures. The one identified as the Wright brothers is probably a craft by Glenn Curtiss, the Wrights didn't have an aft elevator and the pilot sat belly down, head forward w/o a seat.


Anonymous Anonymous said...

That unknown Cody kite looks like a Shadow ship from Babylon 5.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

The other anonymous is correct. It isn't a Wright brothers plane. It is a Voisin. For example, British Science Museum page on 1908 Voisin.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Where is Traian Vuia? ...

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Ask anyone from New Zealand and they would say that Richard Pierce actually pioneered powered flight before the Wright Brothers

Google the name there is a reasonable amount of debate on the subject, but here are a couple of links.



Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi, if you're interested in old flying machines, a UK program called 'Scrapheap Challenge' did an international challenge to build flying machines of old. The English teams plane (approx. 4 minutes in) flys beautifully. Link > http://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=LIhRVAp1Qy4

Anonymous Anonymous said...

I've heard about Richard Pierce, but there are a lot of stories of people who achieved powered flight before the Wrights from all over the world. I'd say that the Wrights were certainly not the first. We must also remember that people were flying around in hot air balloons long before so it wasn't that revolutionary. History is not about sudden changes it's all gradual. I wish people would stop perpetuating the Wright brothers myth. If Americans looked around the world a bit they'd find that people don't hold to this myth.

Blogger Ol Peculier said...

I hope that George Cayley gets a mention soon


as he was working on flight a good 50 years before the Wright brothers. Richard Branson flew a replica of his machine a few years ago which was a hell of a sight, especially as Mr. Branson organised a Virgin jet to do a "fly past" over Brompton Dale the same day

Anonymous Anonymous said...

You forgot about the true first flight, by Burrell Cannon in 1902 in Pittsburg, Texas. The plane is called the Ezekiel Airship and it's quite a looker... www.texasescapes.com/AllThingsHistorical/EzekielAirshipBB1103.htm

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Am I counting wrong, or does the Ca.60 Transaero have nine wings and not eight as stated in the captions? It sure looks like three sets of three wings each to this observer.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

During the early 20th century, Santos Dumont built the 14-bis and later the Oiseau de Proie (French for "bird of prey"). This flying machine was the first fixed-wing aircraft officially witnessed to take off, fly, and land. (not catapulted)

Most americans don't know anything about Santos Dumont.


Ah, and yes, I'm brazilian, thanks.

Blogger Avi Abrams said...

Great info, thanks - will go into next part.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

Curioso! No es la primera vez que en apenas pocos días publicamos cosas similares, ¿Nos leeremos el pensamiento a pesar de estar tan lejos? Gran blog!!

Funny! It is not this the firs time that with few days of diference we both have published similar post... Are we reading each other thinking? Great Blog!!

Anonymous Anonymous said...



Anonymous Anonymous said...

Check Abbas Ibn Firnas's flight, although his unsuccessful landing.


Blogger Unknown said...

Hazerfan Ahmet Çelebi

Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi (Turkish: Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi), who lived in the 17th century in Istanbul in the Ottoman Empire, is one of the first aviators to have succeeded in flying with artificial wings. He is supposed to have been inspired by and used the studies of Leonardo da Vinci on the flight of birds. He started flying from the Galata Tower, a high tower in Istanbul, and managed to fly over the Bosporus. The few people known to have succeeded in this kind of flight are an aviator from Moorish Spain and an English monk in the 9th and 12th centuries, respectively. One of Hezarfen's friends Lagari Hasan Celebi is known to have performed the first flight with a rocket in a conical cage filled with gun powder. Ahmet Celebi, because of his vast scientific knowledge was given the name Hezarfen, meaning "a thousand sciences". In his early studies of flying, he was motivated by the 10th century Turkish scientist Ismail Cevheri. Celebi, after carefully studying Cevheri's findings and when he felt confident enough arranged a public demonstration. He climbed the Galata Tower and launched himself into the wind; he passed over the Bosporus and landed in the slopes of Üsküdar on the Anatolian side.

This event created a great sensation. Sultan Murat IV was delighted and wanted to award Hezarfen but religious leaders and palace advisers soon changed his mind. Hezarfen was exiled to Algeria where he died soon at the age of 31.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

The first man to fly was Santos Dumont.

Anonymous Anonymous said...

On August 28, 1883 John Joseph Montgomery made the first manned, controlled, heavier-than-air flights in the United States in the Otay Mesa area of San Diego, California.

Blogger flatty45 said...

people people people....

the wright brothers are credited with the first "controlled" flight. they flew the first fight that was steerable...

Anonymous Anonymous said...

What people don't seem to realise isn't that the Wrights flew the first 'controllable' flight, but rather they were the first to approach the mechanics of flight in a scientifically verifiable fashion. When they flew it was not a happy accident.


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